What user is apache running as?

You often need to know the username of Apache to assign proper permissions to certain files it will be accessing. To find out:

ps aux | egrep '(apache|httpd)'

You will probably see multiple users. Ignore the root. Go with the other name. It is usually www-data in Ubuntu.

Connect to Linux Instance using SSH on AWS EC2

  1. Go to (http://aws.amazon.com)
  2. Sign in
  3. Click on EC2
  4. Click on Running Instances
  5. Select you pem key. It should match the key pair name.
  6. Make sure that the pem key has "chmod 400" permission
  7. Open terminal and type: ssh -i mykey.pem username@public_dns_name

username is: - ec2-user for Amazon Linux - ec2-user for RHEL5 - ubuntu for Ubuntu - ec2-user for Fedora - ec2-user for SUSE Linux

WordPress Users

You can allow other people to use your WordPress admin features. You can allow users to register themselves. Each user will have a user account and a profile they can configure and edit. Each user is assigned a role. The role defines what a user can do on your website.

WordPress Plugins

WordPress has very limited content management features by design. But you can add rich functionality with plugins. Plugins are small WordPress applications that extend or change the features and functionality of WordPress. For example, WordPress on its own is decent blogging site. However, when you install the woocommerce plugin, it becomes a feature rich ecommerce site. Plugins are easy to install and activated. Once activated, the plugin code offer new functionality. When deactivated, it stops offering the functionality.

Three basic WordPress content types

WordPress has three basic content types:

  • Posts
  • Pages
  • Media Elements

Posts is a blog post. It has published date and can be assigned tag and categories. When listed, posts are often listed in reverse chronological order i.e. newest first. Posts can also accept content.

Pages are suited for static content that is not time dependent. An "about us" page should be a page as opposed to a post.

Media elements can be any file such as image, video, graphic, pdf, etc. Media elements have custom properties based on their file type.


WordPress is a free and open-source web publishing application. WordPress can be used to publish content on the Web. It allows you to create different types of content such as posts, pages, forms, and media posts such as images galleries. WordPress functionality can be extended with plugins. The design of your site can be change with themes.

Creating content and website with WordPress is very easy, highly customizable, and easy to learn.


Python library for data manipulation and analysis. It can work with many different data types including:

  • symbol separated data (tsv, csv, etc.)
  • ordered and unordered time series data
  • matrix and table data
  • labelled and unlabelled data

Reading tab delimited data

First create a data file. Open a text file 3 lines of text with three words on each line separated by tabs. Then save it as data.tsv. Something like the following

id    name    dob
11    Alice    January
12    Bob    February